There is no documentary evidence that could tell us exactly who coined the term educational technology. Different teachers, scientists and philosophers with different time intervals gave different definitions of educational technology. Educational technology is a multifaceted and integrated process involving people, procedures, ideas, devices and organizations, borrowing technology from different fields of science to meet the needs and requirements of education to implement, evaluate and manage solutions to all aspects of learning.
Educational technologies have passed about five stages.
The first phase of educational technology involves the use of tools such as maps, maps, symbols, models, samples, and specific materials. The term “educational technology” is used as a synonym for audiovisual means.
The second stage of educational technologies is connected with the “electronic revolution” with the introduction and implementation of advanced hardware and software. The use of various audiovisual tools, such as projectors, magic lights, tape recorders, radio and television, revolutionized the educational scenario. As a result, the concept of educational technologies has been developed in accordance with these advanced tools and equipment to effectively present educational materials.
The third stage of educational technology is related to the development of the media, which in turn led to a “communicative revolution” for educational purposes. Computer learning (CAI), used in education since the 1950s, also became popular around this time.
The fourth stage of educational technology is observed through the process of individual learning. The invention of software learning and software training has opened up a new dimension in educational technology. The self-learning system was created on the basis of self-learning materials and training machines.
Educational technologies in the Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages
Educational technology, despite the uncertainty over the origin of the term, dates back to the periodization of the system of three ages in prehistoric human history; namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age.
In the Stone Age, the fire of rubbing stones, the manufacture of various hand-held weapons and utensils from stones, and the practice of clothing were among the simple technological advances of paramount importance. A part of the Stone Age population has developed ocean-level canoeing technology to travel across the ocean from one place to another, receiving its first informal education in ocean currents, weather conditions, navigation techniques, astronomical navigation and stars. Cards. By the end of the Stone Age (Neolithic), polished stone tools for agricultural work were made of various hard rocks, mainly by digging underground tunnels, which can be considered the earliest, non-mining technology. The polished axes were so effective that even after the appearance of bronze and iron; people used it to cut down forests and plant crops.
Although stone age cultures have left no written evidence, archaeological evidence confirms their transition from nomadic life to agricultural settlements. Ancient instruments stored in various museums, rock carvings such as the Altamira Cave in Spain and other prehistoric art such as Venus of Willendorf, the mother goddess of Lossel, France, etc. are among the testimonies in favor of their cultures.
The Neolithic Stone Age revolution led to the emergence of the Bronze Age with the development of agriculture, domestication of animals and the creation of permanent colonies. For these practices, bronze age people developed an alloy of metals with copper, and then with bronze, tin alloy and copper, as the preferred material.
Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed knowledge of iron smelting technology to reduce the cost of living because iron utensils were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents.
Educational technologies in the time of ancient civilizations
According to Paul Sattler (2004), educational technologies date back to the days when tribal priests systematized knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictograms or signs to record and transmit information. At each stage of human civilization, a teaching technique or a set of procedures designed to implement a particular culture can be found, which has also been confirmed by a number of studies and evidence. The more complex the culture, the more complex the educational technologies that have become more complex to reflect certain patterns of individual and social behaviour designed to lead a developed society. Over the centuries, every major change in the values, goals or objectives of education has led to the emergence of different learning technologies.
The greatest advances in technology and engineering occurred with the advent of ancient civilizations. These achievements have stimulated and taught other societies around the world to embrace new ways of living and managing.
The Indus Valley civilization was an early Bronze Age civilization located northwest of the Indian subcontinent. Civilization flourished mainly around the Indus Basin in the Indus and Punjab regions, extending to the Ghaggar-Hakra and Gang Yamuna Doab valleys (most of them are located in present-day Pakistan and the western states of the modern era (India and part of civilization stretching to southeastern Afghanistan and the easternmost part of Baluchistan, Iran).
There is a long-standing controversy over the language spoken by Harappans. Their letter is believed to be at least similar to a pictographic letter. It looks like there were about 400 main characters in the script with many variations. Usually people write their script from right to left. Most of the scriptures were found on seals and seals that were probably used in trade, official, and administrative work.
The people of Harappan knew the tools to measure length, mass and time. They were the first in the world to develop a system of uniform measures and weights.